Juju supports a wide variety of clouds. In addition, many of these are known to Juju out of the box. The remaining supported clouds do need to be added to Juju, and, as will be shown, it is simply done.
Once your cloud is known to Juju, whether by default or due to it being added, the next step is to add your cloud credentials to Juju. The exception is for a local LXD cloud; credentials are added automatically.
This rest of this page covers general cloud management and an overview of how clouds are added. However, you can get started right away by selecting your cloud here:
- Amazon AWS *
- Microsoft Azure *
- Google GCE *
- Oracle *
- Rackspace *
- LXD (local) *
- LXD (remote)
- VMware vSphere
Those clouds known to Juju out of the box are denoted by an asterisk (*).
General cloud management
To get the list of clouds that the client is aware of use the
juju clouds --local
This will return a list very similar to:
Cloud Regions Default Type Description aws 15 us-east-1 ec2 Amazon Web Services aws-china 2 cn-north-1 ec2 Amazon China aws-gov 1 us-gov-west-1 ec2 Amazon (USA Government) azure 27 centralus azure Microsoft Azure azure-china 2 chinaeast azure Microsoft Azure China cloudsigma 12 dub cloudsigma CloudSigma Cloud google 18 us-east1 gce Google Cloud Platform oracle 4 us-phoenix-1 oci Oracle Cloud Infrastructure oracle-classic 5 uscom-central-1 oracle Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Classic rackspace 6 dfw rackspace Rackspace Cloud localhost 1 localhost lxd LXD Container Hypervisor
In versions prior to
clouds command only operates locally (there is no
Each line represents a cloud that Juju can interact with. It gives the cloud name, the number of cloud regions Juju is aware of, the default region (for the current Juju client), the type/API used to control it, and a brief description.
The cloud name (e.g. ‘aws’, ‘localhost’) is what you will use in any subsequent commands to refer to a cloud.
To see which regions Juju is aware of for any given cloud use the
regions command. For the ‘aws’ cloud then:
juju regions aws
This returns a list like this:
us-east-1 us-east-2 us-west-1 us-west-2 ca-central-1 eu-west-1 eu-west-2 eu-central-1 ap-south-1 ap-southeast-1 ap-southeast-2 ap-northeast-1 ap-northeast-2 sa-east-1
To change the default region for a cloud:
juju set-default-region aws eu-central-1
You can also specify a region to use when Creating a controller.
To get more detail about a particular cloud:
juju show-cloud --local azure
In versions prior to
show-cloud command only operates locally (there is no
To learn of any special features a cloud may support the
--include-config option can be used with
show-cloud. These can then be passed to either of the
bootstrap or the
add-model commands. See Passing a cloud-specific setting for an example.
To synchronise the Juju client with changes occurring on public clouds (e.g. cloud API changes, new cloud regions) or on Juju’s side (e.g. support for a new cloud):
The definition of an existing cloud can be done locally or, since
v.2.5.3, remotely (on a controller).
For the ‘oracle’ cloud, for instance, create a YAML-formatted file, say
oracle.yaml, with contents like:
clouds: oracle: type: oci config: compartment-id: <some value>
Here, the local (client cache) definition is modified:
juju update-cloud --local oracle -f oracle.yaml
This will avoid having to include
--config compartment-id=<some value> at controller-creation time (
Here, the remote definition is updated by specifying the controller:
juju update-cloud oracle -f oracle.yaml -c oracle-controller
If you specify a controller without supplying a YAML file then the remote cloud will be updated according to the client’s current knowledge of that cloud.
Adding a cloud is done with the
add-cloud command, which has both interactive and manual modes.
Adding clouds interactively
For new users, interactive mode is the recommended method for adding a cloud. This mode currently supports the following clouds: MAAS, Manual, OpenStack, Oracle, and vSphere.
Adding clouds manually
More experienced operators can add their clouds manually. This can assist with automation.
The manual method necessitates the use of a YAML-formatted configuration file. It has the following format:
clouds: <cloud_name>: type: <cloud type> auth-types: [<authenticaton types>] regions: <region-name>: endpoint: <https://xxx.yyy.zzz:35574/v3.0/>
The table below shows the authentication types available for each cloud type. It does not include the
interactive type as it does not apply in the context of adding a cloud manually.
|cloud type||authentication types|
To add a cloud in this way we supply an extra argument to specify the relative (or absolute) path to the file:
juju add-cloud --local <cloud-name> -f <cloud-file>
In versions prior to
add-cloud command only operates locally (there is no
Here are some examples of manually adding a cloud:
Managing multiple clouds with one controller
v.2.6.1 you can add a cloud to an existing controller, thereby saving a machine and the trouble of setting up a controller within that cloud.
Multi-cloud functionality via
add-k8s) is available as “early access” and requires the use of a feature flag. Once the controller is created, you can enable it with:
juju controller-config features="[multi-cloud]"
For example, to manage a MAAS cloud with a LXD controller:
juju bootstrap localhost lxd juju add-cloud --local maas -f maas-cloud.yaml juju add-credential maas -f maas-credentials.yaml juju add-cloud --controller lxd maas
The output to the
list-clouds command becomes:
Clouds on controller "lxd": Cloud Regions Default Type Description localhost 1 localhost lxd maas 0 maas
The ‘lxd’ controller is said to be a multi-cloud controller.
A limiting factor to multi-cloud controllers is that both controller machine and workload machine(s) must be able to initiate a TCP connection to one another. There are also latency issues that may make some scenarios unfeasible.
New cloud-based ‘add-model’ permissions can be set up via new commands
When adding a model on a multi-cloud controller specifying the cloud name is mandatory. To continue with the example above then, to add model ‘xanadu’ to the ‘maas’ cloud:
juju add-model xanadu maas