Keystone is an OpenStack project that provides Identity, Token, Catalog and Policy services for use specifically by projects in the OpenStack family. It implements OpenStack's Identity API.
This charm provides Keystone, the OpenStack identity service. Its target platform is (ideally) Ubuntu LTS + OpenStack.
Keystone requires a database. The charm supports relation to a shared database
server through the
mysql-shared interface. When a new data store is
configured, the charm ensures the minimum administrator credentials exist (as
configured in charm configuration)
When more than one unit is deployed with the hacluster application the charm will bring up an HA active/active cluster.
There are two mutually exclusive high availability options: using virtual IP(s) or DNS. In both cases the hacluster subordinate charm is used to provide the Corosync and Pacemaker backend HA functionality.
Communication between Keystone and cloud services (as well as the OpenStack client) can be encrypted with TLS. Keystone also publishes API endpoints for the cloud (e.g. cinder, glance, keystone, neutron, nova, and placement), which may be TLS-based.
There are two methods for managing TLS keys and certificates:
- with Vault
- manually (via charm options)
Vault can set up private keys and server certificates for an application. It can also store a central CA certificate for the cloud. See the vault charm for more information.
Vault is the recommended method and is what will be covered here.
The private key and server certificate (and its signing) are enabled via a relation made to the vault application:
juju add-relation keystone:certificates vault:certificates
Other applications can enable TLS by adding their own relation to Vault. Vault will issue certificates to the application and Keystone will update the corresponding API endpoint from HTTP to HTTPS.
For example, the Placement API:
juju add-relation placement:certificates vault:certificates
Note: API endpoints can be listed with
openstack catalog list.
This charm supports the use of Juju Network Spaces, allowing the charm to be bound to network space configurations managed directly by Juju. This is only supported with Juju 2.0 and above.
API endpoints can be bound to distinct network spaces supporting the network separation of public, internal and admin endpoints.
Access to the underlying MySQL instance can also be bound to a specific space using the shared-db relation.
To use this feature, use the --bind option when deploying the charm:
juju deploy keystone --bind \ "public=public-space \ internal=internal-space \ admin=admin-space \ shared-db=internal-space"
Alternatively, these can also be provided as part of a Juju native bundle configuration:
keystone: charm: cs:xenial/keystone num_units: 1 bindings: public: public-space admin: admin-space internal: internal-space shared-db: internal-space
NOTE: Spaces must be configured in the underlying provider prior to attempting to use them.
NOTE: Existing deployments using
os\-\*-network configuration options will
continue to function; these options are preferred over any network space
binding provided if set.
Policy overrides is an advanced feature that allows an operator to override the default policy of an OpenStack service. The policies that the service supports, the defaults it implements in its code, and the defaults that a charm may include should all be clearly understood before proceeding.
Caution: It is possible to break the system (for tenants and other services) if policies are incorrectly applied to the service.
Policy statements are placed in a YAML file. This file (or files) is then (ZIP) compressed into a single file and used as an application resource. The override is then enabled via a Boolean charm option.
Here are the essential commands (filenames are arbitrary):
zip overrides.zip override-file.yaml juju attach-resource keystone policyd-override=overrides.zip juju config keystone use-policyd-override=true
The charm supports the following relations. They are primarily of use to developers:
identity-admin: Used by charms to obtain the credentials for the admin user. This is intended for charms that automatically provision users, tenants, etc.
identity-credentials: Used by charms to obtain Keystone credentials without creating a service catalogue entry. Set 'username' only on the relation and Keystone will set defaults and return authentication details. Possible relation settings:
username: Username to be created.
project: Project (tenant) name to be created. Defaults to service's project.
requested_roles: Comma-delimited list of roles to be created.
requested_grants: Comma-delimited list of roles to be granted. Defaults to Admin role.
domain: Keystone v3 domain the user will be created in. Defaults to the Default domain.
identity-notifications: Used to broadcast messages to services listening on the corresponding interface.
identity-service: Used by API endpoints to request an entry in the Keystone service catalogue and the endpoint template catalogue.
identity-servicerelation is not used by Horizon (see
When a relation is established Keystone receives the following data from the requesting API endpoint:
Keystone verifies that the requested service is supported (the list of supported services should remain updated). The following will occur for a supported service:
- an entry in the service catalogue is created
- an endpoint template is created
- an admin token is generated.
The API endpoint receives the token and is informed of the ports that Keystone is listening on.
keystone-service: Used only by Horizon. Horizon requests its configured default role and Keystone responds with a token. Horizon also receives the authentication and admin ports on which Keystone is listening.
nrpe-external-master: Used to generate Nagios checks.
Security Compliance config option "password-security-compliance"
password-security-compliance configuration option sets the
[security_compliance] section of Keystone's configuration file.
The configuration option is a YAML dictionary, that is one level deep, with the following keys (and value formats).
lockout_failure_attempts: <int> lockout_duration: <int> disable_user_account_days_inactive: <int> change_password_upon_first_use: <boolean> password_expires_days: <int> password_regex: <string> password_regex_description: <string> unique_last_password_count: <int> minimum_password_age: <int>
It can be set by placing the keys and values in a file and then using the Juju command:
juju config keystone --file path/to/config.yaml
Note that, in this case, the
config.yaml file requires the YAML key
password-security-compliance: with the desired config keys and values on the
following lines, indented for a dictionary.
Note: Please ensure that the page Security compliance and PCI-DSS is consulted before setting these options.
The charm will protect service accounts (accounts requested by other units that are in the service domain) against being forced to change their password. Operators should also ensure that any other accounts are protected as per the above referenced note.
If the config value cannot be parsed as YAML and/or the options are not able to be parsed as their indicated types then the charm will enter a blocked state until the config value is changed.
As the keystone charm supports multiple releases of the OpenStack software, it also supports two Keystone token systems: UUID and Fernet. The capabilities are:
- pre 'ocata': UUID tokens only.
- ocata and pike: UUID or Fernet tokens, configured via the 'token-provider' configuration parameter.
- rocky and later: Fernet tokens only.
Fernet tokens were added to OpenStack to solve the problem of Keystone being required to persist tokens to a common database (cluster) like UUID tokens, and solve the problem of size for PKI or PKIZ tokens.
For further information, please see Fernet - Frequently Asked Questions.
Theory of Operation
Fernet keys are used to generate tokens; they are generated by Keystone and have an expiration date. The key repository is a directory, and each key is an integer number, with the highest number being the primary key. Key '0' is the staged key, that will be the next primary. Other keys are secondary keys.
New tokens are only ever generated from the primary key, whilst the secondary keys are used to validate existing tokens. The staging key is not used to generate tokens but can be used to validate tokens as the staging key might be the new primary key on the master due to a rotation and the keys have not yet been synchronised across all the units.
Fernet keys need to be rotated at periodic intervals, and the keys need to be synchronised to each of the other keystone units. Keys should only be rotated on the master keystone unit and must be synchronised before they are rotated again. Over rotation occurs if a unit rotates its keys such that there is no suitable decoding key on another unit that can decode a token that has been generated on the master. This happens if two key rotations are done on the master before a synchronisation has been successfully performed. This should be avoided. Over rotations can also cause validation keys to be removed before a token's expiration which would result in failed validations.
There are 3 parts to the Key Rotation Strategy:
- The rotation frequency
- The token lifespan
- The number of active keys
There needs to be at least 3 keys as a minimum. The actual number of keys is determined by the token lifespan and the rotation frequency. The max_active_keys must be one greater than the token lifespan / rotation frequency
To quote from the FAQ:
The number of max_active_keys for a deployment can be determined by dividing the token lifetime, in hours, by the frequency of rotation in hours and adding two. Better illustrated as:
Configuring Key Lifetime
In the keystone charm, the rotation frequency is calculated
automatically from the
token-expiration and the
configuration parameters. For example, with an expiration of 24 hours and
6 active keys, the rotation frequency is calculated as:
token_expiration = 24 # actually 3600, as it's in seconds max_active_keys = 6 rotation_frequency = token_expiration / (max_active_keys - 2)
fernet-max-active-keys can never be less than 3 (which is
enforced in the charm), which would make the rotation frequency the same
as the token expiration time.
NOTE: To increase the rotation frequency, either increase
fernet-max-active-keys or reduce
token-expiration, and, to decrease
rotation frequency, do the opposite.
NOTE: If the configuration parameters are used to significantly reduce the
key lifetime, then it is possible to over-rotate the verification keys
such that services will hold tokens that cannot be verified but haven't
yet expired. This should be avoided by only making small changes and
verifying that current tokens will still be able to be verified. In
fernet-max-active-keys affects the rotation time.
When an older keystone charm is upgraded to this version, NO change will
occur to the token system. That is, an ocata system will continue to use
UUID tokens. In order to change the token system to Fernet, change the
token-provider configuration item to
fernet. This will switch the
token system over. There may be a small outage in the control plane,
but the running instances will be unaffected.
Please report bugs on Launchpad.
For general charm questions refer to the OpenStack Charm Guide.
- (boolean) If True enables openstack upgrades for this charm via juju actions. You will still need to set openstack-origin to the new repository but instead of an upgrade running automatically across all units, it will wait for you to execute the openstack-upgrade action for this charm on each unit. If False it will revert to existing behavior of upgrading all units on config change.
- (string) Admin password. To be used *for testing only*. Randomly generated by default. To retreive generated password, juju run --unit keystone/0 leader-get admin_passwd
- (int) Port the bind the Admin API server to.
- (string) Admin role to be associated with admin and service users.
- (string) Default admin user to create and manage.
- (string) Keystone assignment backend, valid options are sql, ldap. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (int) Amount of time (in seconds) the catalog should be cached for.
- (string) Keystone database name.
- (string) Username used for connecting to the Keystone database.
- (boolean) Enable debug logging.
- (boolean) Use DNS HA with MAAS 2.0. Note if this is set do not set vip settings below.
- (int) This is the maximum number of active keys when `token-provider` is set to "fernet". If has a minimum of 3, which includes the spare and staging keys. When set to 3, the rotation time for the keys is the same as the token expiration time. When set to a higher value, the rotation time is less than the `token-expiration` time as calculated by: . rotation-time = token-expiration / (fernet-max-active-keys - 2) . Please see the charm documentation for further details about how to use the Fernet token parameters to achieve a key strategy appropriate for the system in question.
- (string) Default network interface on which HA cluster will bind to communication with the other members of the HA Cluster.
- (int) Default multicast port number that will be used to communicate between HA Cluster nodes.
- (int) Client timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
- (int) Connect timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
- (int) Queue timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
- (int) Server timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
- (string) Apply system hardening. Supports a space-delimited list of modules to run. Supported modules currently include os, ssh, apache and mysql.
- (string) Keystone identity backend, valid options are: sql, ldap, pam. . NOTE: this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends.
- (string) Role that allows admin operations (access to all operations).
- (string) Role that allows acting as service admin.
- (string) Comma-separated options for ldap configuration. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Password of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (boolean) Ldap identity server backend readonly to keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Ldap server address for keystone identity backend. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Ldap server suffix to be used by keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Username of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Log level (WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, ERROR)
- (string) Used by the nrpe-external-master subordinate charm. A string that will be prepended to instance name to set the host name in nagios. So for instance the hostname would be something like 'juju-myservice-0'. If you are running multiple environments with the same services in them this allows you to differentiate between them.
- (string) A comma-separated list of nagios servicegroups. If left empty, the nagios_context will be used as the servicegroup
- (string) Repository from which to install. May be one of the following: distro (default), ppa:somecustom/ppa, a deb url sources entry, or a supported Ubuntu Cloud Archive e.g. . cloud:<series>-<openstack-release> cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/updates cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/staging cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/proposed . See https://wiki.ubuntu.com/OpenStack/CloudArchive for info on which cloud archives are available and supported. . NOTE: updating this setting to a source that is known to provide a later version of OpenStack will trigger a software upgrade unless action-managed-upgrade is set to True. NOTE: a corresponding public key from keyserver.ubuntu.com can be used when specifying a repository by appending the key separated by a | when entering the deb url sources entry, i.e. openstack-origin="deb <DEB URL>|<PUB KEY>"
- (string) The hostname or address of the admin endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for admin endpoints. For example, an os-admin-hostname set to 'keystone.admin.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a admin endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.admin.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Admin network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for admin endpoints.
- (string) The hostname or address of the internal endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for internal endpoints. For example, an os-internal-hostname set to 'keystone.internal.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a internal endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.internal.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Internal network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for internal endpoints.
- (string) The hostname or address of the public endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for public endpoints. For example, an os-public-hostname set to 'keystone.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a public endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Public network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for public endpoints.
- (string) This config item, if set, is used to configure the [security_compliance] section of the keystone.conf file. This is used to control how the security around passwords is manged. Please refer to the charm README for full details. . The config item should be a YAML complaint string that sets the various allowed options in [security_compliance]. The settings are checked by the charm, but it's possible that it may break things unexpectedly. Please ensure that the the README and relevant documentation is consulted before setting this configuration option.
- (boolean) If True enables IPv6 support. The charm will expect network interfaces to be configured with an IPv6 address. If set to False (default) IPv4 is expected. . NOTE: these charms do not currently support IPv6 privacy extension. In order for this charm to function correctly, the privacy extension must be disabled and a non-temporary address must be configured/available on your network interface.
- (int) Use this keystone api version for keystone endpoints and advertise this version to identity client charms. For OpenStack releases < Queens this option defaults to 2; for Queens or later it defaults to 3.
- (string) Space-separated list of Openstack regions.
- (string) When service relations are joined they provide a name used to create a service admin_username in keystone. The name used may be too crude for some situations e.g. pre-populated LDAP identity backend. If set, this option will be prepended to each service admin_username.
- (int) Port the bind the API server to.
- (string) Name of tenant to associate service credentials.
- (string) base64-encoded SSL CA to use with the certificate and key provided - this is only required if you are providing a privately signed ssl_cert and ssl_key.
- (string) base64-encoded SSL certificate to install and use for API ports. Setting this value and ssl_key will enable reverse proxying, point Keystone's entry in the Keystone catalog to use https, and override any certificate and key issued by Keystone (if it is configured to do so).
- (string) base64-encoded SSL key to use with certificate specified as ssl_cert.
- (int) Amount of time (in seconds) a token should remain valid.
- (string) Transitional configuration option to enable migration to Fernet tokens prior to upgrade to OpenStack Rocky. . Supported values are 'uuid' and 'fernet'. . NOTE: This configuration option is honoured on OpenStack versions Ocata through Queens. For OpenStack Rocky it is a unconfigurable default. Silently ignored for all other versions.
- (boolean) If True then use the resource file named 'policyd-override' to install override YAML files in the service's policy.d directory. The resource file should be a ZIP file containing at least one yaml file with a .yaml or .yml extension. If False then remove the overrides.
- (boolean) Setting this to True will allow supporting services to log to syslog.
- (boolean) Enable verbose logging.
- (string) Virtual IP(s) to use to front API services in HA configuration. . If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each network, separated by spaces.
- (int) Default CIDR netmask to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
- (string) Default network interface to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
- (float) The CPU core multiplier to use when configuring worker processes for Keystone. By default, the number of workers for each daemon is set to twice the number of CPU cores a service unit has. When deployed in a LXD container, this default value will be capped to 4 workers unless this configuration option is set.