Percona XtraDB Cluster provides an active/active MySQL compatible alternative implemented using the Galera synchronous replication extensions.
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Percona XtraDB Cluster is a high availability and high scalability solution for MySQL clustering. Percona XtraDB Cluster integrates Percona Server with the Galera library of MySQL high availability solutions in a single product package which enables you to create a cost-effective MySQL cluster.
This charm deploys Percona XtraDB Cluster onto Ubuntu.
WARNING: Its critical that you follow the bootstrap process detailed in this document in order to end up with a running Active/Active Percona Cluster.
If you are deploying this charm on MAAS or in an environment without direct access to the internet, you will need to allow access to repo.percona.com as the charm installs packages direct from the Percona respositories. If you are using squid-deb-proxy, follow the steps below:
echo "repo.percona.com" | sudo tee /etc/squid-deb-proxy/mirror-dstdomain.acl.d/40-percona sudo service squid-deb-proxy restart
The first service unit deployed acts as the seed node for the rest of the cluster; in order for the cluster to function correctly, the same MySQL passwords must be used across all nodes:
cat > percona.yaml << EOF percona-cluster: root-password: my-root-password sst-password: my-sst-password EOF
Once you have created this file, you can deploy the first seed unit:
juju deploy --config percona.yaml percona-cluster
Once this node is full operational, you can add extra units one at a time to the deployment:
juju add-unit percona-cluster
A minimum cluster size of three units is recommended.
Percona Cluster is extremely memory sensitive. Setting memory values too low will give poor performance. Setting them too high will create problems that are very difficult to diagnose. Please take time to evaluate these settings for each deployment environment rather than copying and pasting bundle configurations.
The Percona Cluster charm needs to be able to be deployed in small low memory development environments as well as high performance production environments. The charm configuration opinionated defaults favor the developer environment in order to ease initial testing. Production environments need to consider carefully the memory requirements for the hardware or cloud in use. Consult a MySQL memory calculator 2 to understand the implications of the values.
Between the 5.5 and 5.6 releases a significant default was changed. The performance schema 1 defaulted to on for 5.6 and later. This allocates all the memory that would be required to handle max-connections plus several other memory settings. With 5.5 memory was allocated during runtime as needed.
The charm now makes performance schema configurable and defaults to off (False). With the performance schema turned off memory is allocated when needed during run time. It is important to understand this can lead to run time memory exhaustion if the configuration values are set too high. Consult a MySQL memory calculator 2 to understand the implications of the values.
Particularly consider the max-connections setting, this value is a balance between connection exhaustion and memory exhaustion. Occasionally connection exhaustion occurs in large production HA clouds with max-connections less than 2000. The common practice became to set max-connections unrealistically high near 10k or 20k. In the move to 5.6 on Xenial this became a problem as Percona would fail to start up or behave erratically as memory exhaustion occurred on the host due to performance schema being turned on. Even with the default now turned off this value should be carefully considered against the production requirements and resources available.
When more than one unit of the charm is deployed with the hacluster charm the percona charm will bring up an Active/Active cluster. The process of clustering the units together takes some time. Due to the nature of asynchronous hook execution it is possible client relationship hooks may be executed before the cluster is complete. In some cases, this can lead to client charm errors.
To guarantee client relation hooks will not be executed until clustering is completed use the min-cluster-size configuration setting:
juju deploy -n 3 percona-cluster juju config percona-cluster min-cluster-size=3
When min-cluster-size is not set the charm will still cluster, however, there are no guarantees client relation hooks will not execute before it is complete.
Single unit deployments behave as expected.
There are two mutually exclusive high availability options: using virtual IP(s) or DNS. In both cases, a relationship to hacluster is required which provides the corosync back end HA functionality.
To use virtual IP(s) the clustered nodes must be on the same subnet such that the VIP is a valid IP on the subnet for one of the node's interfaces and each node has an interface in said subnet. The VIP becomes a highly-available API endpoint.
At a minimum, the config option 'vip' must be set in order to use virtual IP HA. If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each network, separated by spaces. Optionally, vip_iface or vip_cidr may be specified.
To use DNS high availability there are several prerequisites. However, DNS HA does not require the clustered nodes to be on the same subnet. Currently the DNS HA feature is only available for MAAS 2.0 or greater environments. MAAS 2.0 requires Juju 2.0 or greater. The clustered nodes must have static or "reserved" IP addresses registered in MAAS. The DNS hostname(s) must be pre-registered in MAAS before use with DNS HA.
At a minimum, the config option 'dns-ha' must be set to true and 'os-access-hostname' must be set in order to use DNS HA. The charm will throw an exception in the following circumstances: If neither 'vip' nor 'dns-ha' is set and the charm is related to hacluster If both 'vip' and 'dns-ha' are set as they are mutually exclusive If 'dns-ha' is set and os-access-hostname is not set
Network Space support
This charm supports the use of Juju Network Spaces, allowing the charm to be bound to network space configurations managed directly by Juju. This is only supported with Juju 2.0 and above.
You can ensure that database connections are bound to a specific network space by binding the appropriate interfaces:
juju deploy percona-cluster --bind "shared-db=internal-space"
alternatively these can also be provided as part of a juju native bundle configuration:
percona-cluster: charm: cs:xenial/percona-cluster num_units: 1 bindings: shared-db: internal-space
NOTE: Spaces must be configured in the underlying provider prior to attempting to use them.
NOTE: Existing deployments using the access-network configuration option will continue to function; this option is preferred over any network space binding provided if set.
Note that Percona XtraDB Cluster is not a 'scale-out' MySQL solution; reads and writes are channelled through a single service unit and synchronously replicated to other nodes in the cluster; reads/writes are as slow as the slowest node you have in your deployment.
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the 'access' network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for access to database services.
- (int) Sets the expire_logs_days mysql configuration option, which will make mysql server automatically remove logs older than configured number of days.
- (string) Sets the max_binlog_size mysql configuration option, which will limit the size of the binary log files. The server will automatically rotate binlgos after they grow to be bigger than this value. Keep in mind that transactions are never split between binary logs, so therefore binary logs might get larger than configured value.
- (string) Location on the filesystem where binlogs are going to be placed. Default mimics what mysql-common package would do for mysql. Make sure you do not put binlogs inside mysql datadir (/var/lib/mysql/)!
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the cluster (replication) network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for wsrep_cluster replication.
- (string) (DEPRECATED - use innodb-buffer-pool-size) How much data should be kept in memory in the DB. This will be used to tune settings in the database server appropriately. Supported suffixes include K/M/G/T. If suffixed with %, one will get that percentage of RAM allocated to the dataset.
- (boolean) Use DNS HA with MAAS 2.0. Note if this is set do not set vip settings below.
- (boolean) Turns on MySQL binary logs. The placement of the logs is controlled with the binlogs_path config option.
- (string) Default network interface on which HA cluster will bind to communication with the other members of the HA Cluster.
- (int) Default multicast port number that will be used to communicate between HA Cluster nodes.
- (string) Apply system hardening. Supports a space-delimited list of modules to run. Supported modules currently include os, ssh, apache and mysql.
- (string) By default this value will be set according to 50% of system total memory but also can be set to any specific value for the system. Supported suffixes include K/M/G/T. If suffixed with %, one will get that percentage of system total memory allocated.
- (boolean) Turns on innodb_file_per_table option, which will make MySQL put each InnoDB table into separate .idb file. Existing InnoDB tables will remain in ibdata1 file - full dump/import is needed to get rid of large ibdata1 file
- (string) Key ID to import to the apt keyring to support use with arbitary source configuration from outside of Launchpad archives or PPA's.
- (boolean) Adds two config options (wsrep_drupal_282555_workaround and wsrep_retry_autocommit) as a workaround for Percona Primary Key bug (see LP 1366997).
- (int) Maximum connections to allow. A value of -1 means use the server's compiled-in default. This is not typically that useful so the charm will configure PXC with a default max-connections value of 600. Note: Connections take up memory resources. Either at startup time with performance-schema=True or during run time with performance-schema=False. This value is a balance between connection exhaustion and memory exhaustion. Consult a MySQL memory calculator like http://www.mysqlcalculator.com/ to understand memory resources consumed by connections. See also performance-schema.
- (int) Minimum number of units expected to exist before charm will attempt to bootstrap percona cluster. If no value is provided this setting is ignored.
- (string) Used by the nrpe-external-master subordinate charm. A string that will be prepended to instance name to set the host name in nagios. So for instance the hostname would be something like: . juju-myservice-0 . If you're running multiple environments with the same services in them this allows you to differentiate between them.
- (string) A comma-separated list of nagios servicegroups. If left empty, the nagios_context will be used as the servicegroup.
- (string) The hostname or address of the access endpoint for percona-cluster.
- (boolean) The performance schema attempts to automatically size the values of several of its parameters at server startup if they are not set explicitly. When set to on (True) memory is allocated at startup time. The implications of this is any memory related charm config options such as max-connections and innodb-buffer-pool-size must be explicitly set for the environment percona is running in or percona may fail to start. Default to off (False) at startup time giving 5.5 like behavior. The implication of this is one can set configuration values that could lead to memory exhaustion during run time as memory is not allocated at startup time.
- (boolean) If True enables IPv6 support. The charm will expect network interfaces to be configured with an IPv6 address. If set to False (default) IPv4 is expected. . NOTE: these charms do not currently support IPv6 privacy extension. In order for this charm to function correctly, the privacy extension must be disabled and a non-temporary address must be configured/available on your network interface.
- (string) Root password for MySQL access; must be configured pre-deployment for Active-Active clusters.
- (string) Package install location for Percona XtraDB Cluster (defaults to distro for >= 14.04)
- (string) Percona method for taking the State Snapshot Transfer (SST), can be: 'rsync', 'xtrabackup', 'xtrabackup-v2', 'mysqldump', 'skip' - see https://www.percona.com/doc/percona-xtradb-cluster/5.5/wsrep-system-index.html#wsrep_sst_method
- (string) Re-sync account password for new cluster nodes; must be configured pre-deployment for Active-Active clusters.
- (int) Sets table_open_cache (formerly known as table_cache) to mysql.
- (string) Virtual IP to use to front Percona XtraDB Cluster in active/active HA configuration
- (int) Netmask that will be used for the Virtual IP.
- (string) Network interface on which to place the Virtual IP.
- (int) The number of seconds the server waits for activity on a noninteractive connection before closing it. -1 means use the server's compiled in default.