Keystone is an OpenStack project that provides Identity, Token, Catalog and
Policy services for use specifically by projects in the OpenStack family. It
implements OpenStack's Identity API.
This charm provides Keystone, the OpenStack identity service. Its target
platform is (ideally) Ubuntu LTS + OpenStack.
The following interfaces are provided:
nrpe-external-master: Used to generate Nagios checks.
identity-service: OpenStack API endpoints request an entry in the
Keystone service catalog + endpoint template catalog. When a relation is
established, Keystone receives:
internal_url. It first checks that the requested service is
listed as a supported service. This list should stay updated to support
current OpenStack core services. If the service is supported, an entry in the
service catalog is created, an endpoint template is created and an admin token
is generated. The other end of the relation receives the token as well as
info on which ports Keystone is listening on.
keystone-service: This is currently only used by Horizon/dashboard
as its interaction with Keystone is different from other OpenStack API
services. That is, Horizon requests a Keystone role and token exists. During
a relation, Horizon requests its configured default role and Keystone
responds with a token and the auth + admin ports on which Keystone is
identity-admin: Charms use this relation to obtain the credentials
for the admin user. This is intended for charms that automatically provision
users, tenants, etc. or that otherwise automate using the OpenStack cluster
identity-notifications: Used to broadcast messages to any services
listening on the interface.
identity-credentials: Charms use this relation to obtain keystone
credentials without creating a service catalog entry. Set 'username'
only on the relation and keystone will set defaults and return
authentication details. Possible relation settings:
usernameUsername to be created.
projectProject (tenant) name to be created. Defaults to services
requested_rolesComma delimited list of roles to be created.
requested_grantsComma delimited list of roles to be granted.
Defaults to Admin role.
domainKeystone v3 domain the user will be created in. Defaults
to the Default domain.
Keystone requires a database. The charm supports relation to a shared database
server through the
mysql-shared interface. When a new data store is
configured, the charm ensures the minimum administrator credentials exist (as
configured in charm configuration)
There are two mutually exclusive high availability options: using virtual
IP(s) or DNS. In both cases, a relationship to hacluster is required which
provides the corosync backend HA functionality.
To use virtual IP(s), the clustered nodes must be on the same subnet such that
the VIP is a valid IP on the subnet for one of the node's interfaces and each
node has an interface in said subnet. The VIP becomes a highly-available API
At a minimum, the config option
vip must be set in order to use virtual IP
HA. If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each
network, separated by spaces. Optionally,
vip_cidr may be
To use DNS high availability, there are several prerequisites. However, DNS HA
does not require the clustered nodes to be on the same subnet.
Currently, the DNS HA feature is only available for MAAS 2.0 or greater
environments. MAAS 2.0 requires Juju 2.0 or greater. The clustered nodes must
have static or "reserved" IP addresses registered in MAAS. The DNS hostname(s)
must be pre-registered in MAAS before use with DNS HA.
At a minimum, the configuration option
dns-ha must be set to true and at
least one of
os-admin-hostname must be set in order to use DNS HA. One or more of the
above hostnames may be set.
The charm will throw an exception in the following circumstances:
dns-hais set and the charm is related to hacluster
dns-haare set as they are mutually exclusive
dns-hais set and none of the
configuration options are set
Support for TLS and HTTPS endpoints can be enabled through configuration
To enable TLS and HTTPS endpoints with a certificate signed by your own
Certificate Authority, set the following configuration options:
Example bundle usage:
keystone: charm: cs:keystone num_units: 1 options: ssl_ca: include-base64://path-to-PEM-formatted-ca-data ssl_cert: include-base64://path-to-PEM-formatted-certificate-data ssl_key: include-base64://path-to-PEM-formatted-key-data
Note: If your certificate is signed by a Certificate Authority present in
the CA Certificate Store in operating systems used in your deployment, you do
not need to provide the
include-base64bundle keyword tells Juju to source a file and
Base64 encode it before storing it as a configuration option value. The path
can be absolute or relative to the location of the bundle file.
Network Space Support
This charm supports the use of Juju Network Spaces, allowing the charm to be
bound to network space configurations managed directly by Juju. This is only
supported with Juju 2.0 and above.
API endpoints can be bound to distinct network spaces supporting the network
separation of public, internal and admin endpoints.
Access to the underlying MySQL instance can also be bound to a specific space
using the shared-db relation.
To use this feature, use the --bind option when deploying the charm:
juju deploy keystone --bind \ "public=public-space internal=internal-space admin=admin-space shared-db=internal-space"
Alternatively, these can also be provided as part of a juju native bundle
keystone: charm: cs:xenial/keystone num_units: 1 bindings: public: public-space admin: admin-space internal: internal-space shared-db: internal-space
NOTE: Spaces must be configured in the underlying provider prior to attempting
to use them.
NOTE: Existing deployments using
os\-\*-network configuration options will
continue to function; these options are preferred over any network space
binding provided if set.
This feature allows for policy overrides using the
policy.d directory. This
is an advanced feature and the policies that the OpenStack service supports
should be clearly and unambiguously understood before trying to override, or
add to, the default policies that the service uses. The charm also has some
policy defaults. They should also be understood before being overridden.
Caution: It is possible to break the system (for tenants and other
services) if policies are incorrectly applied to the service.
Policy overrides are YAML files that contain rules that will add to, or
override, existing policy rules in the service. The
policy.d directory is
a place to put the YAML override files. This charm owns the
/etc/keystone/policy.d directory, and as such, any manual changes to it will
be overwritten on charm upgrades.
Overrides are provided to the charm using a Juju resource called
policyd-override. The resource is a ZIP file. This file, say
overrides.zip, is attached to the charm by:
juju attach-resource keystone policyd-override=overrides.zip
The policy override is enabled in the charm using:
juju config keystone use-policyd-override=true
True the status line of the charm will be
PO: indicating that policies have been overridden. If the
installation of the policy override YAML files failed for any reason then the
status line will be prefixed with
PO (broken):. The log file for the charm
will indicate the reason. No policy override files are installed if the
(broken): is shown. The status line indicates that the overrides are broken,
not that the policy for the service has failed. The policy will be the defaults
for the charm and service.
Policy overrides on one service may affect the functionality of another
service. Therefore, it may be necessary to provide policy overrides for
multiple service charms to achieve a consistent set of policies across the
OpenStack system. The charms for the other services that may need overrides
should be checked to ensure that they support overrides before proceeding.
As the keystone charm supports multiple releases of the OpenStack software, it
also supports two keystone token systems: UUID and Fernet. The capabilities are:
- pre 'ocata': UUID tokens only.
- ocata and pike: UUID or Fernet tokens, configured via the 'token-provider'
- rocky and later: Fernet tokens only.
Fernet tokens were added to OpenStack to solve the problem of keystone being
required to persist tokens to a common database (cluster) like UUID tokens,
and solve the problem of size for PKI or PKIZ tokens.
For further information, please see Fernet - Frequently Asked
Theory of Operation
Fernet keys are used to generate tokens; they are generated by keystone
and have an expiration date. The key repository is a directory, and each
key is an integer number, with the highest number being the primary key. Key
'0' is the staged key, that will be the next primary. Other keys are secondary
New tokens are only ever generated from the primary key, whilst the secondary
keys are used to validate existing tokens. The staging key is not used to
generate tokens but can be used to validate tokens as the staging key might be
the new primary key on the master due to a rotation and the keys have not yet
been synchronised across all the units.
Fernet keys need to be rotated at periodic intervals, and the keys need to be
synchronised to each of the other keystone units. Keys should only be rotated
on the master keystone unit and must be synchronised before they are rotated
again. Over rotation occurs if a unit rotates its keys such that there is
no suitable decoding key on another unit that can decode a token that has been
generated on the master. This happens if two key rotations are done on the
master before a synchronisation has been successfully performed. This should
be avoided. Over rotations can also cause validation keys to be removed
before a token's expiration which would result in failed validations.
There are 3 parts to the Key Rotation Strategy:
- The rotation frequency
- The token lifespan
- The number of active keys
There needs to be at least 3 keys as a minimum. The actual number of keys is
determined by the token lifespan and the rotation frequency. The
max_active_keys must be one greater than the token lifespan / rotation
To quote from the FAQ:
The number of max_active_keys for a deployment can be determined by dividing the token lifetime, in hours, by the frequency of rotation in hours and adding two. Better illustrated as:
Configuring Key Lifetime
In the keystone charm, the rotation frequency is calculated
automatically from the
token-expiration and the
configuration parameters. For example, with an expiration of 24 hours and
6 active keys, the rotation frequency is calculated as:
token_expiration = 24 # actually 3600, as it's in seconds max_active_keys = 6 rotation_frequency = token_expiration / (max_active_keys - 2)
fernet-max-active-keys can never be less than 3 (which is
enforced in the charm), which would make the rotation frequency the same
as the token expiration time.
NOTE: To increase the rotation frequency, either increase
fernet-max-active-keys or reduce
token-expiration, and, to decrease
rotation frequency, do the opposite.
NOTE: If the configuration parameters are used to significantly reduce the
key lifetime, then it is possible to over-rotate the verification keys
such that services will hold tokens that cannot be verified but haven't
yet expired. This should be avoided by only making small changes and
verifying that current tokens will still be able to be verified. In
fernet-max-active-keys affects the rotation time.
When an older keystone charm is upgraded to this version, NO change will
occur to the token system. That is, an ocata system will continue to use
UUID tokens. In order to change the token system to Fernet, change the
token-provider configuration item to
fernet. This will switch the
token system over. There may be a small outage in the control plane,
but the running instances will be unaffected.
- (boolean) If True enables openstack upgrades for this charm via juju actions. You will still need to set openstack-origin to the new repository but instead of an upgrade running automatically across all units, it will wait for you to execute the openstack-upgrade action for this charm on each unit. If False it will revert to existing behavior of upgrading all units on config change.
- (string) Admin password. To be used *for testing only*. Randomly generated by default. To retreive generated password, juju run --unit keystone/0 leader-get admin_passwd
- (int) Port the bind the Admin API server to.
- (string) Admin role to be associated with admin and service users.
- (string) Admin token. If set, this token will be used for all services instead of being generated per service.
- (string) Default admin user to create and manage.
- (string) Keystone assignment backend, valid options are sql, ldap. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Keystone database name.
- (string) Username used for connecting to the Keystone database.
- (boolean) Enable debug logging.
- (boolean) Use DNS HA with MAAS 2.0. Note if this is set do not set vip settings below.
- (int) This is the maximum number of active keys when `token-provider` is set to "fernet". If has a minimum of 3, which includes the spare and staging keys. When set to 3, the rotation time for the keys is the same as the token expiration time. When set to a higher value, the rotation time is less than the `token-expiration` time as calculated by: . rotation-time = token-expiration / (fernet-max-active-keys - 2) . Please see the charm documentation for further details about how to use the Fernet token parameters to achieve a key strategy appropriate for the system in question.
- (string) Default network interface on which HA cluster will bind to communication with the other members of the HA Cluster.
- (int) Default multicast port number that will be used to communicate between HA Cluster nodes.
- (int) Client timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
- (int) Connect timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
- (int) Queue timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
- (int) Server timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
- (string) Apply system hardening. Supports a space-delimited list of modules to run. Supported modules currently include os, ssh, apache and mysql.
- (string) Keystone identity backend, valid options are: sql, ldap, pam. . NOTE: this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends.
- (string) Role that allows admin operations (access to all operations).
- (string) Role that allows acting as service admin.
- (string) Comma-separated options for ldap configuration. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Password of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (boolean) Ldap identity server backend readonly to keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Ldap server address for keystone identity backend. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Ldap server suffix to be used by keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Username of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
- (string) Log level (WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, ERROR)
- (string) Used by the nrpe-external-master subordinate charm. A string that will be prepended to instance name to set the host name in nagios. So for instance the hostname would be something like 'juju-myservice-0'. If you are running multiple environments with the same services in them this allows you to differentiate between them.
- (string) A comma-separated list of nagios servicegroups. If left empty, the nagios_context will be used as the servicegroup
- (string) Repository from which to install. May be one of the following: distro (default), ppa:somecustom/ppa, a deb url sources entry, or a supported Ubuntu Cloud Archive e.g. . cloud:<series>-<openstack-release> cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/updates cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/staging cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/proposed . See https://wiki.ubuntu.com/OpenStack/CloudArchive for info on which cloud archives are available and supported. . NOTE: updating this setting to a source that is known to provide a later version of OpenStack will trigger a software upgrade unless action-managed-upgrade is set to True. NOTE: a corresponding public key from keyserver.ubuntu.com can be used when specifying a repository by appending the key separated by a | when entering the deb url sources entry, i.e. openstack-origin="deb <DEB URL>|<PUB KEY>"
- (string) The hostname or address of the admin endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for admin endpoints. For example, an os-admin-hostname set to 'keystone.admin.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a admin endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.admin.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Admin network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for admin endpoints.
- (string) The hostname or address of the internal endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for internal endpoints. For example, an os-internal-hostname set to 'keystone.internal.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a internal endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.internal.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Internal network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for internal endpoints.
- (string) The hostname or address of the public endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for public endpoints. For example, an os-public-hostname set to 'keystone.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a public endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.example.com:5000/v2.0
- (string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Public network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for public endpoints.
- (boolean) If True enables IPv6 support. The charm will expect network interfaces to be configured with an IPv6 address. If set to False (default) IPv4 is expected. . NOTE: these charms do not currently support IPv6 privacy extension. In order for this charm to function correctly, the privacy extension must be disabled and a non-temporary address must be configured/available on your network interface.
- (int) Use this keystone api version for keystone endpoints and advertise this version to identity client charms. For OpenStack releases < Queens this option defaults to 2; for Queens or later it defaults to 3.
- (string) Space-separated list of Openstack regions.
- (string) When service relations are joined they provide a name used to create a service admin_username in keystone. The name used may be too crude for some situations e.g. pre-populated LDAP identity backend. If set, this option will be prepended to each service admin_username.
- (int) Port the bind the API server to.
- (string) Name of tenant to associate service credentials.
- (string) base64-encoded SSL CA to use with the certificate and key provided - this is only required if you are providing a privately signed ssl_cert and ssl_key.
- (string) base64-encoded SSL certificate to install and use for API ports. Setting this value and ssl_key will enable reverse proxying, point Keystone's entry in the Keystone catalog to use https, and override any certificate and key issued by Keystone (if it is configured to do so).
- (string) base64-encoded SSL key to use with certificate specified as ssl_cert.
- (int) Amount of time (in seconds) a token should remain valid.
- (string) Transitional configuration option to enable migration to Fernet tokens prior to upgrade to OpenStack Rocky. . Supported values are 'uuid' and 'fernet'. . NOTE: This configuration option is honoured on OpenStack versions Ocata through Queens. For OpenStack Rocky it is a unconfigurable default. Silently ignored for all other versions.
- (boolean) If True then use the resource file named 'policyd-override' to install override YAML files in the service's policy.d directory. The resource file should be a ZIP file containing at least one yaml file with a .yaml or .yml extension. If False then remove the overrides.
- (boolean) Setting this to True will allow supporting services to log to syslog.
- (boolean) Enable verbose logging.
- (string) Virtual IP(s) to use to front API services in HA configuration. . If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each network, separated by spaces.
- (int) Default CIDR netmask to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
- (string) Default network interface to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
- (float) The CPU core multiplier to use when configuring worker processes for Keystone. By default, the number of workers for each daemon is set to twice the number of CPU cores a service unit has. When deployed in a LXD container, this default value will be capped to 4 workers unless this configuration option is set.